3 0 obj Shortly after Theodosius’ decree, Augustine became bishop of Hippo in North Africa. Ǿ��"ש�E��iɄ��/h�n��<0�k L�L�b!���(���A� ��3x��G�T��v/?A�����GȾ,�z���� �)қ[܎ߒ�I. Christianity - Christianity - Missions to South East Asia and the Pacific: Missionaries also evangelized regions throughout Southeast Asia and the Pacific. The variations lie in the idioms and symbols used to express these features and abilities. Hence, it cannot be avoided in the interaction between Christianity and African Traditional Religion. As would be expected, even though there are variations, in all of them the Deity is attributed broadly similar characteristics: omnipotence, everlastingness, ubiquity, and being beyond the comprehension and control of ordinary living people. %PDF-1.5 170 0 obj <> endobj Different levels of interreligious dialogue and … In the eastern Sudan, south of Egypt, another civilisation arose, starting about 1000 B.C. The well-known narrative of the late Roman church-historian Rufinus relates a top-down process of conversion, starting with the ruler himself. By the end of the 2nd century it had reached the region around Carthage.In the 4th century, the Aksumite empire in modern-day Eritrea and Ethiopia became one of the first regions in the world to adopt Christianity as an official religion and the Nubian kingdoms of Nobatia, Makuria and Alodia followed two centuries later. He had gone round the Cape of Good Hope in the Indian Ocean. All East African religions have a belief in a high god, the creator. Thomas C. Oden, in his fascinating book, How Africa Shaped the Christian Mind: Rediscovering the African Seedbed of Western Christianity, I am of the strong opinion that the dilemma of the African Christian on Polygamy could be resolved in this last two quotations. Christian kingdom stretching from Aswan to the Blue Nile. This was so long before the advent of Christianity and the African world view is at many points more consistent with the biblical world … In the twentieth century, Christianity in Africa exploded from an estimated population of eight or nine million in 1900 (8 to 9%) to some 335 million in 2000 (45%), marking a shift in the “center of gravity of Christianity” from the West to Latin America, parts of Asia and Africa. This article discusses briefly what postcolonialism and the meaning of AIR and its encounter with Christianity are. �&�@�\���H[ i���%��P���wJ,Nu��+���M-� ��M��w�K�O��K���s�+΄�K�J*R�C��!��i���4ɳ$1'3�B�. Mark arrived in Egypt around 42 C.E., Philip traveled all the way to Carthage before heading east into Asia Minor, Matthew visited Ethiopia (by way of Persia), as did Bartholomew. Christianity in Eastern Africa Christianity in South Africa The Origins and Spread of Islam Before the 19th Century Islam in Northern Africa Islam in Western Africa Islam in Eastern Africa 61 61 65 69 77 77 83 91 91 93 95 97 07 98 101 101 105 108 110 111 115 115 116 121. � n�"|���&FK��X���ƿ �� To a larger extent Christianity was the right arm of imperialism. %%EOF �_/aϮn���z,�q�����{�Ӯ��(�� x�9�4�W��Y�R�Q'm����6 �j� ţ�!P��̋x�@C�Ϫ�h�@���^�:!�j}�Dyv�t/���K�^Χ���lf�Ƽ�a_�����,^ �h�˹�ܛ��5$՛���Y�s���Jc�S��x���[_/�Պ�>���޾�A�e���:��Z����u�8=3Pd�Xm�Jp�#��kI �-;+��* ��zW-D��Z���"j( �^ڇi��:]/8�j�f0�8Y=,��y�<41@R���p��= ��0D�ʬ�q����q#a���{��j Vb���\��ơb��\N=�S�����z1Ժ�v3sΦ)����B{A�2�S&�ZT�+P�4�. Perhaps the most accurate term to translate this concept here is Deity. �"����GJQ'�f�/^ �~@����/j�x��O� eV:���o�c�ק��aKs���� +p7BZY�9�c�~��Vm��}t���*=2'g*S'N�9�d�;��i��ݼ��Q�l� Such an alliance with a powerful Christian king at the he… An adult convert to Christianity, Augustine came to be one ... Eastern. They carried out exploration work into the discovery of various East African physical features. The history of Christianity in Africa probably began during the earthly ministry of Jesus Christ, two thousand years ago. It is perhaps worth noting at the start that the spread of Islam in Africa was much more than the passing on and adoption of religious ideas. endstream endobj startxref h�2�0Q0P0�0U07Rf He shows that the number of Christians in Africa grew from 8.75 million in 1900 to 117 million in 1970 to 335.1 million by mid-2000, and projects a figure of 360 million for mid-2003 and 600.5 million for 2005.38 Thus by 1999 most Christians in the world lived in Latin America, Africa 0. 3. Such was the situation that when Africans started founding African independent and indigenous churches, they could not condemn polygamy at all. The Portuguese were the first to introduce Christianity to the east African coast in the 15th c. this attempt however had little success. Today, Eastern Christianity includes the Orthodox churches, while Western Christianity includes the Catholic and Protestant churches. . The Christian missionaries built many churches in East Africa many of which are still in existence. Africa. endobj It will additionally examine Christianity in sub-Saharan Africa before 1800 including the Ethiopian Orthodox Church and Kongo Catholicism. Christianity Reaches North Africa . The New Testament of the Bible mentions several events in which Africans were witnesses to the life of Christ and the ministry of the apostles. In other words, if good ideas appeared in Africa, they must have come from the Western world. stream 190 0 obj <>stream The yielding 6 In an excellent essay De Gruchy (1997:24–39) explains the significance of the Coptic Orthodox Church in African Christianity. 0 Christianity, despite its eclipse from most of Northern Africa in subsequent centuries. ?�E|��tuE��qtQ�[�ˠ�U�� ?� ?��K�DJ�K���ir��J�y�2��pVe����b�`[��Ql�EV!�m�2U���(-ȫB��:F\�/�勺8�8�~ �j��z An Oriental Orthodox Christian church based in Egypt, Northeast Africa, and the Middle East. In East Africa, for instance, dini (“religion”) is commonly not used for traditional religions, and traditionalists are viewed by others as having “no religion at all.” To be Christian means to be civilized, and to be civilized means that one should belong to a world religion. endstream endobj 171 0 obj <> endobj 172 0 obj <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/Type/Page>> endobj 173 0 obj <>stream Once it was introduced to Africa, Christianity slowly spread from Alexandria to Ethiopia. endobj 4 0 obj The report, corroborated by the adoption of Th e report then “zooms in” on East Africa, where the three religious “families” of traditional religion, Islam and Christianity are all present in large numbers. Christianity arrived in Africa in the late 1st or early 2nd century AD, making these Christian communities some of the earliest in the world. Understood as the such, African Christian theology has been <> Orthodox & Catholic Coptic Christians The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria. The Ethiopians were probably of Hamitic origin, mixed later with It does not fi nd any signifi cant correlation between, on the one hand, confl ict As the UNESCO General History of Africasummarises, unlike many other faiths: It is thus perhaps more comprehensible, given the above, why so many African rulers and elites were ready to adopt a foreign religion when it also brought with it definite advantages of governance and wealth. - that of the Kushites, probably a mixture of Hamitic and Negro stock. The ancient East African kingdom of Aksum gradually adopted Christianity from the early- to mid-fourth-century reign of Ezana onwards. 1 0 obj <> sense, African Christian theology is the understanding, presentation and concrete interpretation of the Christian faith in accordance with the needs, aspirations, thought-forms and mentality of the people of the black continent. This is manifested by the fact that European Christian missionaries from Portugal, France, Britain, and Germany went to Africa under the premise of going to convert the locals to Christianity, but turned to actually aid in the colonization of Africans by Europeans. Not only had he discovered a new route to India and the Far East, he had also discovered a way by which Islamic forces could be checked. Christianity in Africa arrived in Egypt in the middle of the 1st century. At first, the problem which Christianity presented to the traditional religion was not regarded as a serious matter by the people because conversion to Christianity at the initial stage was not an easy task because Christianity was a new religion and something brought to Igbo nation by European missionaries: Rev. h�bbd``b`Z$A,S ���*�@�9� 183 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<2A753DF1022D894C8E80387954BF14FB>]/Index[170 21]/Info 169 0 R/Length 71/Prev 273619/Root 171 0 R/Size 191/Type/XRef/W[1 2 1]>>stream %���� One Saturday afternoon, April 7th, 1498, Vasco da Gama anchored off Mombasa near where Fort Jesus stands today. The first missions to Vietnam were undertaken in the 16th and 17th centuries by Dominicans and Jesuits from Portugal and France. 2 Professor Watson A. 7 For the founding of Christianity in Africa, I am very much dependent on the magisterial work of Baur (1994) and also the work of Onyinah (2007). %PDF-1.6 %���� They for example set up a church at Zanzibar, Rubaga and Rabai missionary station near Mombasa. x��[�s۸�����Hu,� A���xƲ������כ�\?жl��HU���_��Ń�$�j/瘏�b���o���j�>6���ݻ��ͦ��M�������/������M�w���*�ܾ}s��%�e�Hn߾aIX�k�Uu���7��o�� ������ϣ2���"��9\'#��?�ƌ���W�q�vͨ�dI����+���H���@\��Siӵ�q ρ�ſ�k�ܚ�!����}���@�|��'�������=����7�ae�:��R���X&-d�1X:WY^ڿ����q�|)���g(A�\F8 Qf���ňK�qWQ�:S;��1ZY���Q�Jd��ϒϰ�� ��n Mark the Evangelist made history in the year 43 when he became the first bishop to serve in the Orthodox Church of Alexandria. Christianity in East Africa owes an immense debt to this trio of German Lutherans: Krapf, Rebmann, and Erhardt, all working under the CMS. The school thus became, in the 1 See the companion chapter by Felipe Valencia Caicedo in this volume on the spread of Christian missions across Latin America and Asia. The report, corroborated by the adoption of Christian symbolism on Ezana’s late coinage, and monotheistic as … the Bantu-speaking peoples, who gradually spread into central, eastern and southern Africa. It could be really difficult to out-rightly, or even condemn polygamy at all. endobj Christianity did not precede the working of God and the Holy Spirit among Africans. Many believe that Christianity cannot be traditionally African because it is supposed to be imported from Europe. Their coming of Christian missionaries to East Africa and Africa in general was based on a number of motives which were humanitarian, economic, political and social in nature. Reasons will be explored for the relative marginality of Christianity in most of Africa before the nineteenth century. Chapter 10 … The well-known narrative of the late Roman church-historian Rufinus relates a top-down process of conversion, starting with the ruler himself. Christianity found its way to Sudan in the 1st century as well, and the region's Nubian churches had links to those in Egypt. to African indigenous healers and Christian churches in South Africa openly advocate dialogue with AIR (Denis 2006:310–323). Religion and Christianity in Eastern Nigeria: The Igbo Example Chukwuma O. Okeke1, Christopher N. Ibenwa1, and Gloria Tochukwu Okeke1 Abstract Conflict is a universal phenomenon that is inevitable in human interaction. We have always been a deeply religious people. <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> The Alexandria-based church initially used Greek, and it was not until the late 2nd century that both the liturgy and the scriptures were translated into three native languages. Further east is Ethiopia. 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