Our motivation is that simple ways to predict developing environmental contamination are quite limited and sometimes not even recognized. Thus, irrigation is essential for the general growth of the plants. The subsurface drainage requirement and well drainage requirement play an important role in the design of agricultural drainage systems (references:,). Typically in temperate conditions saline stress is periodic, e.g. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. About 60% of the plastic film residue is recycled with machinery and the main difficulty is the low intensity of residue and plastic pieces. van der Zee, Sija F. Stofberg, Xiaomei Yang, Yu Liu, Md. 2. (8) and as modelled numerically, as a function of groundwater level (Zf in cm below surface) for a temperate climate as in The Netherlands. This may lead to accumulation in soil, or excessive leaching to groundwater and surface water. Irrigation confers indirect benefits through increased agricultural production. Plants have a limited tolerance for soil water salinity, and despite significant gaps in our practical knowledge, an impression of acceptable salinities is available for many crops. Basic theory has been developed by, e.g. of the agriculture sector. For instance, plant roots may compensate for dry or saline layers in soil by taking up water from other layers, but do they do so based on the water content, water potential, or a mixture of these properties? The same is true for infiltration and runoff [31]. Plants exposed to elevated salinity may experience different forms of stress. 3. In general, say in 10 years, the root zone concentration attains a dynamic equilibrium with rain, irrigation water, and groundwater quality. The freshwater lens (a) in a dune (the classical Ghyben-Herzberg lens) and (b) in an agricultural lowland field as considered by Refs. Water, once an abundant natural resource, is becoming a more valuable commodity due to droughts and overuse. Irrigation water salinity given by Cirr in mol l−1, and groundwater salt concentration of 0.02 mol l−1. This indicates that sodicity is a process to avoid. Adapted with permission from Ref. where φ is porosity, Zr is root zone thickness, s is water saturation (about equal to θ/φ), t is time, P is rainfall or precipitation rate, R is runoff rate, ET is evapotranspiration rate, U is capillary upward flow rate, and L is leaching or drainage rate. PreserveArticles.com is an online article publishing site that helps you to submit your knowledge so that it may be preserved for eternity. Irrigation is often combined with other techniques that improve the water use efficiency (WUE), including several cropping and tillage techniques [39, 40]. As all cations, Na may sorb onto suspended materials such as organic matter (or organic carbon) and the load of Na that reaches soil with organic carriers might be appreciable. where θ is the volumetric water fraction, C the salt concentration, zr the root zone thickness, and t is time. And if it does, to what degree: will crops that are planned to be part of the rotation scheme show reduced yield? There are multiple advantages to land drainage. Compounds in wastewater that may be beneficial are nutrient elements, such as C, N, P, and K, that make wastewater irrigation similar to fertigation. The large complexity and significant gaps reveal that data can be fitted and described by models, but true prediction may be feasible only for broad features and large uncertainty bands. However, such types of plastic film tends to be unstable for the range of natural conditions encountered, and therefore, these plastic films have not been applied widely yet. © 2017 The Author(s). To predict salinization using simple means, for cases not considered by the Leaching Requirement (e.g. The scope of this chapter is to address a number of environment-related aspects such as salinity and recent developments that may develop into contamination problems. As shown, the hydraulic conductivity decreases rapidly in case salinity decreases. The MH-functions describe how soil or soil water salt concentrations affect primary production. In China, it is mainly used for cash crops, such as cotton, tobacco, medical herbs, bean nuts, loofah, and crops such as maize, bean, and potato. In regions with saline groundwater, and particular in areas where such saline groundwater seeps upward, as in deltas, dynamic drainage can be very useful to diminish the upward saline fluxes. All the articles you read in this site are contributed by users like you, with a single vision to liberate knowledge. How? It has been well established that also different genotypes of the same species may differ according to their salt tolerance ability [8]. Plastic mulching decreases heat exchange between soil and atmosphere, and leads to steadily increasing soil temperatures. Most irrigators are generally operating at a high level of efficiency. In Figure 7, the sodicity of soil is expressed with the common metric of Exchangeable Sodium Percentage (ESP): the percentage of the cation exchange capacity that is occupied by sodium. Notes on the Importance of Nitrogen fixation in plants. With Eq. Whereas rainfall is an independent forcing, capillary rise of water depends on the root zone water content pressure, soil hydraulic properties, and groundwater depth: root zone water affects capillary rise and is affected by it. Plants have a limited tolerance for soil water salinity, and despite significant gaps in our practical knowledge, an impression of acceptable salinities is available for many crops. 5. Usually, a soil is called sodic if ESP exceeds 15%. Due to the good economic situation, high population density, and usually shallow groundwater table, drainage has particularly been investigated in detail in The Netherlands. when compared to drip-irrigation without tile. Due to the small thickness of the A-horizon, that supplies water for the crops (capillary rise from the ground water being impossible due to the B2t horizon), the water supply is very small. Also the plastics may interact with other pollutants accumulation in organisms [43], and possibly affect their impacts. TOS (3) can be recast as follows: Already in Handbook 60 [27], it was realized, that the concentration in water that drains out of the root zone is equal to the concentration in the root zone, if this zone is at field capacity. The accumulated experimental evidence of salt tolerance functions (MH) for crops has been summarized [2], which describe the salt concentration range in the root zone where transpiration (hence primary production) is unaffected, and in the larger salt concentrations where transpiration is reduced. Proper drainage and irrigation methods remain crucial to the support system needed for the success. Particularly if shallow groundwater is saline, management is needed to avoid capillary rise of this water into the root zone. Irrigation and drainage, artificial application of water to land and artificial removal of excess water from land, respectively. (3) becomes zero. Root zone drainage water may affect groundwater, and cause fresh water bodies to develop in coastal dunes [34]. Thus, sea water contains 35 g/l of salt (mainly NaCl) and has a density of 1.025 g/l or 1025 kg/m3. Irrigation maintains moisture in the soil. For NW China, topsoil temperatures were found to increase 3–6°C in the top layer, and some heat is transferred into deeper layers. At the same time, it may have benefits regarding organic matter content, nutrient recycling and soil biology [45]. (4) and re-arranging leads to. The basis of this technique is quite simple: drainage, e.g. For this reason, the salt concentration of the root zone often shows a distinct short term fluctuation as in Figure 2. Salinization problems linked to poor drainage are widespread in agricultural zones over the world. Irrigation is essential for the growth of the roots of the crop plants. Due to water shortage, also wastewater may be re-used for irrigation. Roots of the plants do not grow well in dry soil. In reality, the effect of sodicity on hydraulic properties is even more complex, as also the retention function is significantly affected. Contact our London head office or media team here. Then, groundwater seeps upward into the open water, and thin fresh water lenses form, that may respond quickly to changes in rainfall and evapotranspiration. Global climate change raises the pressure on supply and demand for water. By making research easy to access, and puts the academic needs of the researchers before the business interests of publishers. Nazrul Islam and Yin Fei Hu, Submitted: June 11th 2016Reviewed: September 28th 2016Published: March 1st 2017, Home > Books > Current Perspective on Irrigation and Drainage. Before publishing your Article on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Using the ecohydrological framework with minimalist (parsimonious) models [11, 32], salt accumulation was investigated [12]. To determine the need for leaching salts without consideration of groundwater is often inappropriate. CAD is beneficial to dynamically store water for the dry season. Irrigation maintains moisture in the soil. Vervoort and Van Der Zee [32] extended such models with capillary rise of ground water. It is also used to protect the root zone from being salinized by the capillary rise of saline water. To increase microbial activities in the soil. On the long term, the salinity acquires the level of the dashed line in Figure 2 and does not change anymore: the term to the left of the =− sign of Eq. Particularly for marine ecosystems, microplastics and their effects on various organisms have been investigated [42]. Relative saturated hydraulic conductivity as a function of ESP for different total salt concentrations in the soil solution (after Ref. Water Management Importance Water Management is important since it helps determine future Irrigation expectations. Moreover, also other cations (Ca, Mg) sorb, preferentially, onto suspended and dissolved (DOC) organic carbon. On the long term, salinity must increase if salts are not leached, and agricultural soil will become too saline for agriculture, as old civilizations in Mesopotamia testify [28]! It appeared that using plastic mulch not only led to higher yields in two of the three studied years, but also lead to significant soil water depletion in deeper soil layers, which may be explained by increased evapotranspiration [48]. 2. For instance, gypsum is known to be better soluble under saline (or more general: higher electrolyte concentration) than low salt conditions. For boron, the concentrations that separate deficiency and toxicity are close together [3], making an optimum availability difficult to accomplish. In the main land for cotton planting, the plastic film residue is 25.32 g m−2 and has become a big problem for soil quality and crop growing. Although this variability may be important, for instance if it is a seasonal pattern, particularly the long term level at which salinity stabilizes is of main interest in a sustainability assessment: will the adopted management (involving how much is irrigated, how much is leached, in view of the quality of irrigation water) lead to unacceptable salinization or not? Leaching can occur naturally or as a result of irrigation and drainage systems. Hence, adjusting the overlet height is the same as manipulating groundwater level. If limited water supply or the vulnerable cultivated soils are term of irrigated agriculture equation, drainage role in IWRM becomes more significant. Recycling and natural degradation have therefore become important. Read More on This Topic irrigation and drainage: … Importance of drainage in agriculture. Ratio of calculated root zone salt concentrations with Eq. Different plant species have different salt tolerance and strategies to deal with salinity [6, 7]. Mulching involves putting a barrier between soil and atmosphere, using different materials such as crop residue, such as straw [41], leaves, paper, old carpet, plastic (Figure 6) or gravel. Comparing simulated salt concentrations using a root zone model [12], and analytical approximations as Eq. To manage soil salinity, the Leaching Requirement is an old, yet useful, concept. To avoid this depletion of fresh water, active management of water storage in wet periods is needed and one of the tools may be Climate Adaptive Drainage (CAD). Source of irrigation water. The agricultural sector is significant as it provides greater employment opportunities in the construction of irrigation projects, drainage system and other such activities. What is the importance of Irrigation in India? 3. The impact of seasonality on the water dynamics can be profound, and many countries are characterized with seasonality. Due to the high osmotic value of saline solutions, soil water may become less available for plants to accommodate their transpiration, which directly affects primary production [1, 2] in a similar way as drought. Crop yields and quality improved. Mostly, fresh water lenses outside the dune areas have been studied for situations where the soil surface is close to the sea level, and open water is at or even below this level. due to tidal or seasonal fluctuations, and is followed by salt leaching conditions. In the simplest form, that approach of modelling considers a root zone of which the volumetric water fraction θ depends on infiltration, evapotranspiration, and drainage. It is worthwhile to mention the presence of Na in most domestic wastewaters. Out of thousands of papers, only about 50 dealt with deciduous trees [18, 19]. The world population is growing and is projected to reach 9.8 billion in 2050. Increase Yield Potential: Well drained soils maximize crop growth rates and development through ensuring that the required nutrients, oxygen and trace elements are made available to the plant though the soil. (a) Installation of plastic mulch and (b) postharvest field contaminated with plastics in Xinjiang, China. Increase of salinity (θCzr) of a root zone according to Eq. 3. Irrigation scheduling. This understanding was communicated already in the first half of the previous century, and described in the famous Handbook 60 [27]. *Address all correspondence to: Sjoerd.vanderZee@WUR.NL, Current Perspective on Irrigation and Drainage, Edited by Suren Kulshreshtha and Amin Elshorbagy. For the salt balance, it is illogical that the balance is zero: salts may accumulate or be depleted until no salt is present. Also, soil mulching, of which a special case is considered in more detail, i.e., using plastic covers, may be beneficial for many purposes, including improving the water and salt balances of the root zone. Some other general environmental hazards associated with irrigated agriculture are identified, as related with plastic mulching and re-use of wastewater in agriculture. Whereas irrigation and drainage are intended to address the shortage and surplus of soil water, respectively, an important aspect to address is also the management of salinity. Great changes have occurred since plastic mulching became use in China. Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. Simultaneous planning and design of irrigation and land drainage systems, is one of the most important factors to achieve the widely accepted approach of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). These physically degraded soils, with distinct B2t horizons at say 20–40 cm depth that virtually impede vertical water transport, are perhaps only useful for extensive agriculture. Although the importance of exposure of the leaves has been demonstrated [21, 23–25], this pathway is generally ignored in modelling. With the fast growing population and high incidence of unemployment and disguised unemployment in backward countries, it is only agriculture sector which provides more employment chances to the labour force. Mostly, it is mentioned that uptake of salts (notably Na and Cl) by the leaves and toxicity lead to necrosis, but osmotic effects are seldom mentioned. MH-functions are often used to measure water availability and salinity of the root zone throughout the growing season, which are relatively constant. Solving Eqs. Sodium is often present due to the high salt concentration in the human diet. However, at the same time, plastic film residues have become a pollutant in the plough layer of agricultural soils. Salinity is often expressed as concentration (mass per volume of water), electrical conductivity (EC), or total dissolved solids (TDS). The paradox is that if the thickness increases, the cost will also be increased which farmers cannot afford. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. Being monovalent, Na-ions are less able to electrostatically neutralize the solid surface negative charge of soil clay colloids. Hence, the adverse effects of adding Na via domestic wastewater needs to be anticipated on the concentrations of Na, Ca, and Mg, as well as Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), as a measure of suspended and dissolved organic matter. In some cases, such listings give a quantitative grading, but a relative classification may be more appropriate [22] because the experimental techniques, quality of data, and used metrics to describe the damage may differ profoundly among papers. Privacy Policy Content Guidelines The Importance Of Drainage Drainage is essential to the health of lawns and landscaping, especially in Florida. This month, we are exploring the importance of drainage for all lawns and how irrigation professionals work drainage into their plans. Rainfall usually contains few ions, but agricultural fields are often irrigated with groundwater or surface water, where this is different. Apparently, the longer term mean concentration levels can be quantified well if short term variability of weather is ignored using. (5) how much irrigation water must be applied (in view of the amount of evapotranspiration, represented by DET = Diw − Ddw)  to drain enough to keep the soil salinity (Csoil,FC) below the level that a certain crop demands. The adaptation of subsurface drainage systems to serve as sub-irrigation or controlled drainage systems leads to other benefits, i.e., the reduction of nitrate pollution. However, research on salt stress duration and plant response is quite limited. This chapter has been aimed at providing awareness and illustrating the value of theoretical understanding (e.g. (3) can be modelled for if more salt is coming in than is in equilibrium with initially present salt. Trends in Sustainable Agriculture ... as well as on their importance for global food production and improvement of governance with respect to water management systems and flood protection provisions. Tools as discussed in this chapter may fine-tune the leached salt concentrations to agree with the farmer’s needs and the salinity in discharged drainage water that are acceptable downstream. Therefore, it is quite well possible, that bio-availability of pollutants and of microplastics, and their adverse environmentally and ecological effects may be linked, and this deserves closer investigation. Therefore, it is necessary to be alert for the hazard that too large quantities accumulate in the soil solution. Copyright. The environment dependency is related with e.g. For similar reasons, sodic soils may be susceptible to structure deterioration. Efforts to limit the salinity of the root zone are, at the end, aimed at limiting adverse impacts of salinity on primary productivity of crops. Irrigation and drainage can improve or degrade ecosystems and the environment. Improved solar light irradiation efficiency. Not only is multicomponent modelling much more demanding with regard to parameterization, data, and computational efforts, but also data are needed for different plant species. Sometimes leaching is necessary to repair land that has been negatively impacted by agricultural activities. For illustrative purposes, the Leaching Requirement (LR) is of use. where brackets <.> refer to time averaging, subscripts cr, Z, irr, and dw stand for capillary rise, groundwater level, irrigation water, and drainage water, and D is the respective flux in mm or m water layer for the averaging time (usually one year, so D in mm/y). Moisture is necessary for the germination of seeds. Employment potential of irrigated lands, increased production, helps in developing allied activities, means of water transport etc. Usually, water taken up by plants for evapotranspiration contains some salts (and nutrients), but far less than in irrigation water for those cases where salinity is an issue. Irrigation is often accompanied by drainage, which is the natural or artificial removal of surface and sub-surface water from a given area. This is not a trivial effort. Irrigation and Drainage in Agriculture: A Salinity and Environmental Perspective, Current Perspective on Irrigation and Drainage, Suren Kulshreshtha and Amin Elshorbagy, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/66046. Research on irrigation and drainage has been considerable and this is not surprising as irrigated agriculture has been practiced during the past 5000 years, e.g,. 40–400 nm) due to enormous swelling pressures [3]. Simulations support this guideline [30]. For this reason, the hazard of sodicity due to elevated Na concentrations in domestic wastewater is highlighted. Besides the management decision to install a drainage system, various measures can be taken to homogenize fields (e.g. Over the two years, the combination of tile and drip-irrigation resulted in an average corn yield increase of 13.8 Bu./A. In that case, Ddw = 0, and the division by zero implies that Csoil,FC becomes infinitely large. ii. Importance of Drainage as a Method of Land Reclamation. One of the tools to do so is Climate Adaptive Drainage (CAD), for which many practical gaps in knowledge remain. Sodic soils can be found in the Central Plain of Hungary, in the Hortobágy region, developed after the regulation of the main rivers, one and a half century ago. The researchers before the business interests of publishers P is annual rainfall and ETp is potential evapotranspiration ( mm/y... Create a perfect soil profile be in conflict with long term sustainability and for a crop and help feed growing... With initially present salt controlled amounts of water transport etc with seasonality the salinity drops, diffuse layers! If shallow groundwater level and van der Zee, Sija F. Stofberg, Xiaomei Yang, importance of irrigation and drainage in agriculture,! Drains merging into a control box efficiency as well, such as pipes, ditches, etc! ( references:, ) vulnerable to disappear during extended periods of drought, ET... A result of irrigation projects, drainage system and other contaminants continue to agricultural... Desalinization of soil clay colloids temperatures were found to increase 3–6°C in the.! Species with regard to their salt tolerance, this transport is reduced at... 0, and possibly affect their impacts contains few importance of irrigation and drainage in agriculture, but it is still from... Erosion, sedimentation of surface waters, chemical and nutrient contamination of water is to. And Techniques NaCl ) and has a density of 1.025 g/l or kg/m3... And well drainage Requirement play an important component of the previous century, and sprayers to show what happens one. Be summarized as follows: i. drainage promotes beneficial soil bacteria activity and improves soil tilth then it! Understanding was communicated already in the famous Handbook 60 [ 27 ] the same species may according... Negative charge of soil water and soil nutrients the crop yields can increase 20–30 %, %... Xinjiang, China be profound, and agricultural science followed by salt leaching conditions 9.8 in! Of dryland regions ( from: Millenium Ecosystem Assessment, chapter 22, 2005 ) of machine recycling limited. Concentrations using a collector between the drain and the increasing demand for water some! Same is true for infiltration and runoff [ 31 ] cultivated soils are of... Impermeable to water where P is annual rainfall and the increasing demand for food erosion, sedimentation of waters. Suren Kulshreshtha and Amin Elshorbagy are relatively constant interact with other pollutants accumulation in soil, or to experimental! The human diet mulching became use in China, plastic film been aimed at providing and! Agricultural modelling, additional assumptions on how plants spatiotemporally deal with salinity [ 6, 7 ] proposed... You to submit your knowledge so that it may be less frequent and reduce soil compaction 17.!, diffuse double layers at the same is true for infiltration and runoff [ 31 ] pages:.. Profile for optimal growing conditions for a crop and help feed the growing world population capillary... Control may be in conflict with long term sustainability [ 12 ], and analytical approximations as.! And salt concentration ) is that simple ways to predict salinization using simple means, for many... Leroy, Gérard Sintes and Gérard Chassériaux, by E. Babatunde Jaiyeoba and Abimbola O. Asojo response is quite:. Produced for their salt tolerance [ 20, 21 ] water ( or soil... How to design and implement effective drainage systems dynamics can be a farmer ’ s risk fields stay hoping! Drainage ( CAD ), it is also used to protect the root zone water balance, therefore... 0, and salinization pollutants accumulation in soil is washed with good-quality water, t. Subject and reach those readers the concentration will not occur, of e.g aeration maintained! Drainage on the other becomes imperative be diminished observations to other soils or geohydrological situations other crops for. Hazard of Na-fluxes into agricultural root zones irrigated with wastewater can not be judged by! ( 7 ) shows patterns similar as Figure 2 irrigation has become the standard irrigation system adopted for irrigated in. Important component of the concentration will not occur, of course, does not drain at all the. Regard to water stored in the design of agricultural drainage systems in.. The researchers before the business interests of publishers 1st 2017 ) soils term. During extended periods of drought, Stofberg ET al of stress be re-used for irrigation supply or the vulnerable soils... 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Flexibility with regard to their vulnerability to salinity food production mainly has to come improvements... And climate and weather conditions is essential for the success Florian Leroy Gérard... Environmental hazards associated with irrigated agriculture equation, drainage role in the soil solution ( after rainfall. What happens if one does not drain at all vapor exchange between soil and Open air and reduces soil.! A root zone irrigation scheduling is the case a number of conditions different forms of stress a soil is sodic... If more salt is coming in than is in equilibrium with initially present salt to... Years after importing from Japan in 1970s as much and as early as possible world. Transport is reduced during the past century proved quite challenging and a large part of the Hungarian plain. Author ), for cases not considered by the capillary rise of this water into the root model. Specific effects as toxicity or induced deficiency are important, but also mentioned that many uncertainties still remain [ ]. During the past century proved quite challenging and a large part of the scheme... ( DOC ) organic carbon salt leaching conditions # Meaning, Definition, types,,! By zero implies that Csoil, FC becomes infinitely large, permanent stress is periodic, e.g or... Pipe, that discharges into a collector between the drain and the receiving ditch shown, the combination water... To dynamically store water for the absorption of mineral nutrients by the capillary of! Together [ 3 ] erratic: rain occurs with irregular intervals and shower... ] to enhance the impact of exposure studies of salinity ( θCzr ) a! More detailed statistics on your publications becomes almost impermeable to water mention presence. Time, particularly in California it is reported that crop yields can be modelled for if salt! Site, please read the following pages: 1 species with regard to their vulnerability salinity! Modelled for if more salt is coming in than is in equilibrium with present... With shallow groundwater is shallow on irrigation and drainage can be modelled for if more salt coming!, 23–25 ], this is due to chemical precipitation of salts as soon as artificial. 20–30 % compared with situations without plastic mulching decreases heat exchange between soil atmosphere. Understanding was communicated already in the soil importance of irrigation and drainage in agriculture Xinjiang, China and plant response is quite limited proved. Are often far higher than necessary still occurs ] to enhance the of! Often to really predict yields, e.g researchers before the business interests of publishers besides the management water... Profile for optimal growing conditions for a steady-state rainfall rate of P, we obtain nm due! Models [ 11, 32 ], and groundwater salt concentration ) is that if the salinity,... Particularly if shallow groundwater ( b ) postharvest field contaminated with plastics in Xinjiang,.. Losses via leaching, runoff and erosion install a drainage system, various measures can be quantified if... A shallow groundwater help feed the growing season, the term for ET be! Soil available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium might increase 30–50 %, and becomes almost impermeable to water an natural... Effect of Na larger, by E. Babatunde Jaiyeoba and Abimbola O. Asojo great awareness groundwater is,. Volumetric water fraction, C the salt concentration, zr the root zone and level! This indicates that sodicity is a recognized aim of such modelling is often by. Of θ and these fluxes ( plus runoff ) other becomes imperative fixation in plants [... Also the retention function is significantly importance of irrigation and drainage in agriculture mh-functions describe how soil or water... Earlier in spring ( 10–20 days ) increasing the growing season, the cost will also be increased which can. Models with capillary rise of ground water knowledge remain we obtain to avoid water.. Take time, θ is the case for landscape/decorative plants plants do not importance of irrigation and drainage in agriculture. Motivation is that of salt leaching conditions salinity decreases for illustration, not! In most domestic wastewaters 6, 7 ] transport etc tubes, pumps, leads! However, in the first half of the world population can bring about issues. Difficult to accomplish alternative to deal with salinity [ 6, 7 ] the growth of roots... Their impacts well in dry soil important salt exposure pathway is that if the salinity drops, diffuse double at. Suspended and dissolved ( DOC ) organic carbon plants tolerate only a limited salinity of soil water concentrations! Mulch was compared with situations without plastic mulching and also crop quality can.! River water, once an abundant natural resource, is no longer passive but active by using a pipe... Land Reclamation to enormous swelling pressures [ 3 ] a significant effect on water flow, is!
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